Oops! Is your Silverado not performing well? Don’t panic. Adding the best cold air intake for Silverado will not only improve the performance of your engine but will also increase fuel efficiency.
Nice, isn’t it?
In our guide, we have included the ones which ensure higher torque, are affordable, compatible, and won’t be heavy on your pocket.
Want an ideal cold air intake for Silverado? Yes, we know. Nevertheless, there are so many options out there that choosing one becomes difficult.
Hold your horses!
With our reviews, things are going to be simpler!
Comparing 7 Best Cold Air Intake for Silverado
|Cold Air Intake||Material||Weight (lbs)|
|K&N Cold Air Intake Kit||HDPE||12.72|
|Spectre Performance||Non-woven Synthetic||12.00|
|MOOSUN Cold Air Intake||Alloy Steel||7.89|
|Auto Dynasty Air Intake System||Aluminum||10.98|
|R&L Racing AF Dynamic||Alloy Steel||10.00|
|SUPER FAST RACING||Alloy Steel||8.38|
|Partschoice Air Intake Kit||Steel||7.00|
1. K&N Cold Air Intake Kit -Best Value for Money
If you are looking to make every dollar of your investment count, go for the K&N cold air intake kit.
When we talk about the factory-installed air intake kit, it only ends up restricting the airflow and doesn’t let the engine perform to its maximum.
Greater horsepower instantaneously
Undoubtedly, the first change you will see with it is that it gives 50% more horsepower to the car as compared to the factory-fitted one.
Yes, 50%, that’s a lot, isn’t it?
The reason is simple. The aerodynamic tube is meticulously designed to give higher torque. As a result, you get higher horsepower.
These are just not extravagant claims made by the manufacturers. These are backed by extensive dyno-testing, that too without any ECU tuning. So, you know this is exactly what you are going to get!
Interestingly, it comes with a warranty of 10 years/ 100,000 miles.
Let that sink in!
Moreover, if driven under proper circumstances, you won’t need to clean the filters before the car completes 100,000 miles.
Not only this, but it also ensures that the harmful contaminants stay where they should; out of the engine.
Overall, it helps in giving a better throttle response to the vehicle. Consequently, while towing, you get better uphill performance and acceleration.
VROOM! Where did that sound come from?
Additionally, the quality of the sound increases manifold. You can easily hear a loud, throttling sound when you power the vehicle up or when you step on the acceleration.
Best of all, the sound is not obnoxious to the ears.
If you are worried about the installation process, don’t be. Either you can take it to a mechanic to fit in, or you can easily do it at home in less than an hour.
The reason being, it is not complicated.
You will only need a handful of the basic tools and nothing fancy. Above all, it comes with a bolt-on design and is not complicated at all.
Indeed, quality is guaranteed. Firstly, this k and n cold air intake for Chevy Silverado is made in the USA and that is reason enough to believe it is high-quality.
Secondly, tried and tested on the racetrack and has been approved by the Official Air Filter of Nascar.
This particular cold air intake filter is fit for the following models.
2015-2020 CADILLAC Escalade ESV and Escalade, CHEVY Suburban and Tahoe, 2019 GMC Sierra 1500 Limited, GMC Yukon XL and GMC Yukon, 2014-2018 GMC Sierra 1500, 2014 GMC Sierra Denali, GMC Sierra 1500, 2015-2019 GMC Yukon Denali XL and 2019 CHEVROLET Silverado 1500 LD
Plus, this is also the best cold air intake for Chevy Silverado 1500.
The only downside is that it makes a loud grrr noise frequently. Most of the time, there is nothing, but once the “grrr” sound starts coming, it can get a little loud for the ears.
- BETTER TOWING: Improves acceleration and uphill performance when...
- IMPROVED ENGINE SOUND: Hear the power under the hood
- WORLD CLASS PROTECTION: Pushing the limits of engine protection by...
2. Spectre Performance Air Intake Kit
When it comes to cold air intake filters, most of them promise increasing horsepower and torque. Come to think of it, that is what is required, right?
Sorry to burst your bubble, but this is not the case!
Unlike the majority of cold air filters out there in the market, Specter goes a step ahead and saves your engine from contaminants and debris while increasing performance.
The reason is simple. Interestingly, the filters are oiled. Thus, the debris and contaminants stick to it and don’t proceed further to the engine.
Oiling? Not your headache!
Best of all, it comes pre-oiled and you don’t need to worry about it at all.
If we compare this to the OEM-specific ones, it gives almost 50% more horsepower just like the first K&N filter included in our review. Likewise, this is also dyno-tested.
It comes with a polished, high-quality aluminum tube. Thus, it gives a better towing performance. So, you don’t need to worry about towing uphill.
Feel the power:
The first and foremost thing that you will notice when you install it in your car is the amazing vibrating throttle response you get.
Oh, what an adrenaline rush!
Undoubtedly, it seems like you can hear the engine coming to life and exhibiting power!
You can leave the tension of maintenance behind. The reason for this is that if you drive your car in normal terrain, under normal conditions, the filter will not need cleaning before 100,000 miles.
Let that sink in!
The best feature for me was the bolt-on design. Running again and again to the mechanic is just not my thing. So, the easy installation and user-friendly nature was an add-on.
You don’t need to be a technical geek to install it. Even for a newbie, it will take less than an hour and only the basic installation tools, nothing fancy.
Overall, the non-woven synthetic filter is silver and red. Here again, it takes a point for being classy and stylish.
What’s in the package?
Interestingly, you get a washable filter, heat shield, MAP adaptor rings, intake tubing, hose clamps, velocity stack adaptor, couplers, stainless steel clamps, and all the other hardware required for the installation process.
2007 Chevy Silverado 1500, 2500, HD Classic and 1500, 2500 Classic and Chevy Silverado SS Classic making it an ideal cold air intake for 2007 Chevy Silverado.
It also fits 2007 GMC Sierra Classic 1500 and 3500 and HD Classic 2500, 2002-2006 CADILLAC Escalade and Chevy Avalanche 1500, Tahoe, Suburban 2500 and 1500GMC Sierra Denali and Classic, GMC Yukon XL 1500 and 2500; 2001-2006 CHEVROLET Silverado 1500 and 2500 HD, Silverado 3500, simple GMC Sierra 3500 and HD 1500 and 2500
It also fits 2001-2004 GMC Yukon Denali and XL; 1999-2006 GMC Sierra 1500 and Chevy Silverado 1500; 1999-2004 GMC Sierra 2500 and Silverado 2500; 2003-2006 CADILLAC Escalade EXT, Chevy Silverado SS, and CADILLAC Escalade ESV.
As you can see, it is one of the best cold air intake for 2000 Chevy Silverado.
Despite the high compatibility and all these features, there is a downside:
Surprisingly, even after proper installation, the filter falls off. Happened to me twice. After the mechanic used his screws, it did not come off.
Faulty installation hardware, maybe?
- DESIGNED TO INCREASE HORSEPOWER AND TORQUE: Dyno-tested with up to 50%...
- BETTER TOWING: Improves acceleration and uphill performance when...
- IMPROVED ENGINE SOUND: Hear the power under the hood.
3. MOOSUN Cold Air Intake
Want to have around 95% airflow filtration?
Baam! Got your attention, right?
Moosun does just that with this 4” cold air intake kit. Particularly designed to reduce air intake restriction, it will give a boost to your overall car performance like a pro.
But, how does it do that? What does it have that others don’t?
Certainly, these questions might be crossing your mind. It all lies in the design of the tube and filter. It is made of alloy steel and has a very unique and functional design.
Firstly, it has a large design. Yes, just like the first 2 filters we have included. The reason is simple; wider mouth makes airflow easier; the contaminations can easily be filtered and only clean air is delivered to the engine to save it from getting dirty.
Got it now, right?
Next, there is a bolt-in heat sheet that keeps the hot air from the engine to enter the filter. Thirdly, the tube itself is powder-coated and smooths airflow. Consequently, you will get a 6%-8% higher level of torque.
Is that all?
Undoubtedly, there is more. It also increases horsepower to a handsome 5%-10%. Lastly, the clamps and brackets are made of steel and are as durable as can be.
Therefore, they increase the overall longevity of the filter.
Apart from the sturdy design and durability, it comes with an easy installation process and super easy maintenance.
You won’t need to clean the filter before the car completes 100,000 miles.
Remember, when driven under normal circumstances!
It is easy to install as the kit comes with all the required installation hardware.
Moreover, you can install it at home with the common tools needed. After all, there is a reason why it is the perfect cold air intake for 06 Silverado.
02-06 6.0L V8 Engine: GMC Yukon Denali and 2500 XL/ XL, GMC Sierra Denali and Sierra 3500, and Cadillac Escalade.
2002-2006 5.3 V8 Engine: Cadillac Escalade, Avalanche 1500, Suburban 1500/2500, Tahoe.
Also, it fits Tahoe 4.8L V8 engine, 1999-2006 4.8L/5.3L/6.0L Engine Silverado 1500 / 1500 HD, Silverado 2500 / 2500 HD with 5.3L/6.0L V8 Engine, 1999-2006 GMC Sierra 1500 / 1500 HD, 2003-2006 Silverado SS/Silverado 3500 with 6.0L V8 Engine, GMC Yukon Denali XL 1500 and Sierra 2500 / 2500 HD with a 5.3L/6.0L V8 Engine.
Not only that, but it is also a good cold air intake for 08 Silverado.
Phew! That is some list, isn’t it?
Sadly, it does not fit the MAF sensor without tweaking around a bit. Even though I consider myself a pro at this and the rest of the filters did not give any issue in this aspect, I had to end up modifying to get it through. Wastes a lot of time on it.
- 【unique】The kit includes a intake tube and steel heat shield that...
- Fit for 2002-2006 Avalanche 1500 & 1999-2006 Fit for Silverado 1500 &...
- Fit for GMC 1999-2006 Sierra 1500 & 2007 Sierra 1500 Classic & 2001...
4. Auto Dynasty Black Aluminum Air Intake System Filter
If you are tired of that low-quality, roughly made air intake system, this might just be the thing you need.
The best you can get:
When it comes to strength and durability, this is the best air filter you can opt for. Made with T-6061 aluminum alloy, it gives immense power to the filter to do its work and do its work well!
Talking about the design, it lets the engine draw cold air inside. On the other hand, it also restricts the impurities and debris from entering the engine.
Kills two birds with one stone, doesn’t it?
Not only this, but it also ends up giving more throttle to the car and increases the horsepower.
Unlike the others we have reviewed so far, this does not give a trade-off between power and gas mileage. Rather, it gives a better gas mileage than the factory set ones.
That’s a first, right?
Along with this, it increases the torque by around 6%-8% and gives up to a 10% boost to horsepower.
All this is possible by tuning the inlet pipe according to the engine’s resonance. After all, they need to work together. Right? As a result, you get the best power.
With an intake inlet size of 3.5”, it is going to be a good buy if you have any one of the following models of the specific cars.
07-08 GMC Sierra 2500/ 1500, HD/Yukon XL/Yukon 1500, Silverado 1500, Cadillac Escalade, Chevrolet Avalanche, Tahoe, Suburban 1500.
Remember that it only fits Models that have a 4.8L-6.2L V8 engine. It does not fit any other model.
But how are you going to install it?
Well, it is pretty simple. The kit includes all the installation hardware. For example, 4 clamps, vacuum lines, and silicone hose, air intake pipe, coupler hoses, air filter, heat shields, etc.
The problem with this is that it is not a true fit for a few of the models mentioned. Additionally, it set off the engine light and I had to get it checked by someone.
- ▶️ Made of High Quality T-6061 Aluminum Material for Strength and...
- ▶️ Lightweight High Air Flow Racing Performance Spec. Design
- ▶️ Helps Engine to Draw in More and Colder Air Resulting in Better...
5. R&L Racing AF Dynamic Air Filter Intake
Are you looking for something that will specifically complement your 2014-2019 Silverado 1500 6.2/5.3L V8, AF Dynamic filter can be the best choice to make.
Why do we say so?
Firstly, it is a complete package. Yes, the rest of them were too, right?
It includes the replaceable and washable air filter, heat sheet, pipe, clamps, silicone elbow, and coupler along with a silicone vacuum hose.
As you can see, no cheap rubber or materials have been used to ensure that you get the best of the best.
All the parts are 100% new and are a perfect replacement for the company manufactured ones.
Moreover, it comes with a detailed instruction manual. Even then, it is highly recommended by the manufacturer that you get it installed professionally.
Say bye-bye to cutting, fabrication, and drilling!
None of these things is required. A bunch of simple hand tools is all that is needed.
Instruction manual – how did we miss that out?
You will be needing that too. It is better to read and reread it a few times to understand how to install it if you are up for it.
Moreover, It will hardly take 35-45 minutes to install.
Yes, that is half the time as compared to the one hour the filters above reviewed take to be installed.
Horsepower and throttle, pump it up:
One of the main reasons why you end up changing your cold air filter is for higher horsepower and throttle, and you will get both with this.
This happens because the filter allows the engine to draw in cold, fresh air while keeping the debris, dirt, and contamination out.
Consequently, the life of the engines increases and so performs.
Interestingly, the heat sheet keeps the hot air of the engine from entering the filter.
In comparison to the OEM parts, the filter gives 95% increased filtration.
Domino effect, ever heard of it?
Just like a domino effect, the increased filtration increases the throttle from almost 6% – 8%. In turn, this increases the horsepower from 5% – 10%.
Want to hear the car go?
Usually, loud noises coming from the engine are not favorable. But. Not in cases like these. After the installation process is complete, you can hear a nice throttle from the car, making it sound just like a sports car.
With a fast and easy installation, it does come off as a good buy, especially when you compared it with the costlier ones like K&N.
Plus it is an ideal cold air intake for 2014 Silverado.
Lastly, it comes with a 60-day warranty. So, you know that you are covered.
The only problem with it is that the silicone hose is bigger than the opening of the throttle body. Nothing a good pair of tight clamps can’t handle, right?
- Cold Air Intake System comes complete with everything necessary for...
- Color: Black
- Material: Replaces OEM Filter And Air Box With 100% New Quality Parts....
Are you a DIY enthusiast who loves making modifications to your car? Well, you might be in for a surprise with the SUPERFASTRACING cold air intake system.
Initially, it has been wrinkle coated with a matte finish to the pipe.
Go ahead, makes those changes:
The intake pipe has been designed in such a way to allow manipulation. Therefore, for people who like giving things a personalized touch, you can now do so.
So, amp up that pipe with your modifications.
Additionally, the wide diameter promised better airflow. Not only this, the filter keeps out the debris, dirt, and other impurities that can end up harming your engine.
The design is simple and classy. Furthermore, the double carbon-coated heat shield amps up the smartness quotient of the air intake system. It looks better and performs better.
Have you always been craving for that racer car sound?
Undoubtedly, you got a good racing car-like sound after installation. So, someone sitting inside might not even realize you are not in a race car. Nice, eh?
Manual, Automatic, what is the difference?
When it comes to the intake system, it does not differentiate between manual and automatic cars.
Moreover, it works well with both and gives the same results. A 6%-8% increase in torque and a 5%-10% increase in horsepower.
The final nail in the coffin is the heat shield that stops the hot air of the engine from coming inside the filter.
Thus, promising better efficiency. It cuts the air filter off from the rest of the car to ensure better output.
Worried about the environment?
Don’t be. The entire system is made of renewable parts that keep the environment clean. All the installation hardware is included in the kit.
Therefore, it is easy to install and you can also do it yourself.
1999-2006: Chevy Silverado 1500 HD / 1500/ 2500 / 2500 HD 5.3L/4.8L/6.0L, Silverado 3500 6.0L, GMC Sierra 1500 HD/ 1500 5.3L/4.8L/6.0L
2000-2006: Chevy Suburban 5.3L/6.0L 1500/2500 Tahoe 4.8L/5.3L, Cadillac Escalade 5.3L/6.0L, Avalanche 1500 5.3L, GMC Sierra Denali 6.0L, GMC Yukon 4.8L/5.3L, GMC Sierra 2500 HD / 2500 6.0L/5.3L
2001-2006: 6.0L GMC Yukon Denali and Denali XL, 6.0L GMC Sierra 3500
2003-2006 6.0L: Chevy Silverado SS
2002-2006: 5.3L GMC Yukon Denali XL 1500/2500.
Remember all of these are for the V8 Engine.
Not only that, but it is also an ideal cold air intake for 1999 chevy silverado 1500.
Sadly, the clamp does not work at all. The system keeps falling out until and unless you don’t use your clamps. The ones that come with this particular system is clumsy and flimsy.
- The kit includes a steel heat shield that features a durable...
- Designed to increasing 8-10% horsepower & 6-10% torque, and creating...
- High quality and efficient air intake system, fits automatic and...
7. Partschoice Cold Air Intake Kit -Durable, Sturdy, Economical
Are you looking for something for a cold air intake kit manual and automatic cars both? Well, today is your day as this kit is good for both kinds of transmissions.
It’s a powerhouse!
When it comes to increased horsepower, it meets the other systems included in our review. At 5067 RPM, you get a power surge of 8.23 HP.
That is some power, isn’t it?
Where does all this power come from?
Well, it is all because of the airflow intake restrictions. Moreover, the airflow intake also allows for filtering the air. Thus, increasing the quality of the air entering the engine.
It does so by removing the contaminants, debris, and dirt from the air.
The wide mouth of the intake makes it easier for air to flow. Measuring at 4”, it is big enough. Additionally, it also sets the direction straight by removing obstructions.
The installation process is simple. Just a handful of tools are required to install it in very little time.
With the cold air intake, you also get a steel heat shield, T-306 aluminum pipe, mounting hardware, and a MAF sensor adaptor.
Surprisingly, this was not present in any of the other 6 intake systems we have reviewed earlier.
Not greenhouse safe!
Sadly, it does not comply with the regulations of C.A.R.B. Hence, it is not legal in California and New York.
So, if you are residing in these areas, beware not to get this.
‘02-’06: Chevrolet Suburban 2500/1500 6.0L/5.3L, Chevrolet Avalanche 1500 5.3L, Cadillac Escalade 6.0L/5.3L, Chevrolet Tahoe 5.3L/4.8L
‘99-’06: Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD / 1500 5.3L/4.8L/6.0L and Chevrolet Silverado 2500 HD / 2500 6.0L/5.3L, ‘01-‘06 Chevrolet Silverado 3500 6.0L, ‘03-‘06 Chevrolet Silverado SS 6.0L
’99-’06: GMC Sierra 2500 HD / 2500 6.0L/5.3L and GMC Sierra 1500 HD / 1500 4.8L/6.0L/5.3L
‘02-’06: GMC Yukon Denali XL 2500 5.3L/6.0L, GMC Yukon 5.3L/4.8L, GMC Sierra Denali/ 3500 6.0L, GMC Yukon Denali / XL 6.0L
Wait for it!
The catch is that it is offering a heat shield as well as extra thermal protection which the rest are not offering. So, the wisest decision will be to go for it.
You can tweak your budget a little and go for the purchase.
- Fitment: cold air intake filter for chevy Chevrolet. 00-06 Chevrolet...
- Fitment: cold air intake filter for GMC. 99-06 Sierra 1500/ 1500 HD/...
- Estimated horsepower gain of 8.23 HP at 5067 RPM, Fits automatic and...
Undoubtedly, we have included all top-notch cold air intake for Silverado. So, which one to pick?
Choices, choices, and more choices!
A plethora of choices indeed end up confusing us and this is just the case here. With so many options to choose from, you can get up getting overwhelmed.
So, we are going to tell you how to choose which one is best for you!
Type of Vehicle - Does it Fit?
Crap! Did you JUST shortlist a cold air intake for a 2012 Chevy Silverado and it didn’t fit?
What a bummer, right?
This is why the first thing you should do is check whether the intake you are considering fits your model or not? If your model number does not match, forget to proceed forward.
It could be the best in the world and still be of no use to you.
Filter - Tough on Dirt, Gentle on the Car
Undoubtedly, a good cold air intake should allow the air to flow inside the engine easily.
Isn’t that one reason why we go for this modification?
But, with air come dirt, debris, and contaminants.
Yes, these act as killers and cut down the engine life manifold. So, you need to know that the filter that comes with the intake filters the air well.
Otherwise, going through the hassle of changing it is going to be of no use.
Pro Tip: Another reason why some filters don’t perform well is that they aren’t fit properly. Usually, you can find a little gap between the engine and the filter.
Here is where things start to mess up. The air comes filtered and the gap between the two lets in contaminants.
Whoosh! Everything goes down the drain!
Therefore, it is important to check for gaps.
Maintenance - Get Your Filter Goin’
You have no idea how important maintenance is in this case. If not maintained properly, you will need to change it again and again.
No one would want that. After all, who would want to waste so much money?
Check the reusability factor. It should be easy to wash and should be able to be reused. As you can see all the intakes included in our review and easily washable and can be reused.
Tubing - Keep Quality in Mind
Snap! Did the tubing just break off?
This can turn out to be your worst nightmare. As this is the pathway through which cold air goes inside the engine, it needs to be sturdy and made of erosion-free material.
Therefore, you should check that it is made of one of the following materials:
- Stainless steel
Only these materials will work well for the intake system. Otherwise, you can end up with materials that can rust and end up hurting the engine.
Thermal Barrier - Keep the Heat under the Hood
A thermal barrier is the Holy Grail of air intakes.
A hot engine is a bad engine!
Yes, an engine that frequently gets hot is going to end up getting fried!
You don’t want that, right?
Even though the underlying concept of an air intake is to filter and give cold air to the engine to increase performance, still sometimes the usual is not enough.
The high-end intakes come with thermal insulation in the form of a heat shield. So, look for one when making a purchase.
It will act as an extra protection shield and increase the longevity of the intake.
Thus, for us, it is very important. You shouldn’t mind spending a few extra bucks to get better protection.
Mass Flow Sensor - Keep a Check
How much air does the engine need?
Of course, the amount of air going inside the engine needs to be calibrated. This is done through the mass flow sensor.
Therefore, you need to pick from the two options:
- Vane meter
Oil Filter - Keep It Out
Not only air impurities, but the impurities in oil are also lethal for your engine. Therefore, go for a filter that keeps oil particles out.
Warranty - Are You Covered?
Another important consideration is to check the warranty. It is good to know that you are covered.
Price - Know the Worth
Are you surprised to see that price is the last consideration?
Yes, it should be top of the list, right?
Bear with me!
Even though the price is VERY IMPORTANT and you would already be having a budget in mind, NEVER look at the price tag alone.
Always, check the value of the money you are getting.
Maybe you had decided not to spend too much on the cold air intake but come across one that is priced a little higher as compared to the rest.
Maintenance Tips and Tricks - 5 Fool-Proof Steps to do it Right
Want to watch your investment last longer? Today, I will be sharing 5 excellent and easy to follow tips and tricks to increase the longevity of your intake system.
Struck a chord, haven’t I?
- Instruction Manual: It is imperative to read the instruction manual properly and clearly. Generally, the manufacturers clearly state the specification and numbers when the filters need to be cleaned and serviced. But, if not mentioned, it is good to check every 30,000 miles.
REMEMBER: This number should be kept in mind if you are using the car under everyday circumstances.
On the other hand, if you drive under very dusty and extreme conditions, you need to check the filter regularly.
- Check for Air Gaps: Once you see an air gap, it is time to change the air intake system.
Pro tip: The best and easiest way to do so is to hold the filter up in sunlight and look. This will allow you to look clearly.
- Clean Thoroughly: It is very important to clean well. Now, with the cleaning we just don’t mean washing the filter. There is a proper routine that you need to follow:
- Using compressed air
- Bend the pleats
- Repeat if necessary
Bending the pleats is very critical. In this way, all the dirt and debris will come out.
Pro Tip: Use a nylon brush. Even though a metal brush looks more inviting, it will end up tearing the outside covering of the filter.
- Tubes and Clamps: Frequently check the clamps and tubes to ensure the intake system is well set and secure.
- Take our advice and invest in hydro and heat shields. It will be cheaper in the long run.
Removing the Factory Installed Air Intake - Do It Like a Pro
If not mentioned, follow the procedure below to install the cold air intake system like a pro!
- Firstly, disconnect the negative terminal of the battery. No, it is not to be cautious, it is important to do so as it will reset the system.
- Loosen the hose clamp with the help of a screwdriver. Now, slip the tube off and remove it.
- By removing the screws of the MAF sensor and keep them safe.
- Next, take out the bolts on the factory-installed air box.
- Lastly, you can easily remove the intake system
Finally, you are prepped and ready to go!
Frequently Asked Questions:
All things aside, choosing the best cold air intake for Silverado may be the ideal modification you can make to your Chevy. It will help in increasing your car performance and lead to better fuel efficiency.
Makes it a win-win situation, doesn’t it?
Even though all 7 are top class, our pick is the K&N cold air intake kit. The reason why it is our top recommendation is that it gives 50% more airflow, higher torque, better horsepower, easy installation and maintenance, and what not?
The list goes on and on!